The sixth series of Swiss banknotes from 1976, recalled by the SNB in 2000, is no longer legal tender, but can be exchanged for regular banknotes until April 2020. The history of banknotes in New Zealand was much more complex. In 1840, the Union Bank of Australia began issuing banknotes under British law, but these were not automatically legal tender. When the Iraqi Swiss dinar ceased to be legal tender in Iraq, it was still circulating in the northern Kurdish regions and had a stable market value for more than a decade despite the lack of state support. This example is often cited to show that the value of a currency is not derived solely from its legal status (but that this currency would not be legal tender). Mr. Carl had a legal dispute with a local supermarket about an irregular situation where the store was selling expired canned goods. The customer bought the food without noticing the date and was poisoned by it. Legal tender is a form of money that courts must recognize as a satisfactory payment for monetary debts.
 Each jurisdiction determines what is legal tender, but it is essentially anything that extinguishes the debt when it is offered (“offered”) to pay a debt. The creditor is not obliged to accept the payment offered, but the act of offering payment in legal tender releases the debt. No country has ever used Bitcoin or any other cryptocurrency as legal tender, and challenges abound. Legal tender was first introduced for gold and silver coins in the French Penal Code of 1807 (Art. 475, 11°). In 1870, legal tender was extended to all banknotes of the Bank of France. Anyone who objects to such coins because of their total value would be prosecuted (French Penal Code, art. R.
642-3). This indemnity must be paid within 15 working days using legal tender. The money will be transferred by bank transfer to Mr. Carl`s bank account. Before the Civil War (1861 to 1865), silver coins were legal tender only up to a maximum of US$5. Before 1853, when American silver coins were weighed by 7%, the coins had exactly their value in metal (from 1830 to 1852). Two 50-cent silver coins had silver with an exact value of $1. An 1849 gold U.S. dollar had $1 worth of gold. With the influx of gold from California mines in the early 1850s, the price of silver rose (gold fell).
For example, from 1840 to 1852, 50-cent coins were worth 53 cents when melted. The government could increase the value of (expensive) gold coins or reduce the size of all U.S. silver coins. With the reduction of 1853, a 50-cent coin had only 48 cents of silver. This is the reason for the $5 silver coin limit as legal tender; Paying someone $100 in the new silver coins would give them $96 in silver. Most people preferred bank checks or gold coins for large purchases. Legal tender also allows monetary policy. From the issuer`s perspective, legal tender allows the issuer to manipulate, devalue and devalue the currency to obtain seigniorage and facilitates the issuance of escrow media by the banking system to meet trading needs. In the absence of legal tender laws, Gresham`s law would make monetary policy, seigniorage, currency manipulation, and fiat media spending much more difficult, as good money in this case tends to drive out bad money. In 1901, banknotes in circulation in Australia consisted of banknotes payable in gold coins and issued by merchant banks and Queensland treasury bills. Banknotes circulated in every state except Queensland, but were not legal tender, except for a brief period in 1893 in New South Wales.
However, there were certain restrictions on their issuance and other provisions to protect the public. Queensland Treasury notes were issued by the Queensland Government and were legal tender in that state. Banknotes of both categories remained in circulation until 1910, when the Commonwealth Parliament passed the Australian Notes Act 1910 and the Bank Notes Tax Act 1910. The Australian Notes Act of 1910 prohibited the circulation of government notes as currency, and the Bank Notes Tax Act of 1910 imposed a tax of 10% per annum on “all notes issued or reissued by a Commonwealth bank after the enactment of that Act and not repaid”.   These laws effectively ended the issuance of banknotes by commercial banks and the Queensland Treasury. The Reserve Bank Act of 1959 expressly prohibits persons and states “from issuing a bill of exchange or note for the payment of money payable on demand to the holder and intended for circulation.”  Definition: Legal tender is a legally recognised payment instrument used to meet a financial obligation. In other words, it is an economical means accepted by the legal system. Legal tender serves several purposes. By default, it is used by market participants to perform the functions of money in the economy: an indirect medium of exchange, a unit of account, a store of value, and a deferred payment standard. Proponents of legal tender laws argue that markets generally do not produce the optimal type, quality, and quantity of money, and that legal tender increases the usefulness of money as a means of reducing transaction costs. In particular, legal tender can allow flexibility in the money supply, and a single currency can eliminate the transaction costs associated with using multiple competing currencies. The introduction of legal tender is a means of achieving a single currency.
Some currencies, such as the US dollar and the euro, are used as legal tender in countries that do not issue their own currency or have found the stable dollar preferable to their own currency. For example, Ecuador adopted the U.S. dollar as its legal tender in 2000 after Ecuador`s currency, sugar, rapidly devalued, making $1 worth $25,000. The adoption of the U.S. dollar as the primary legal tender is colloquially referred to as “dollarization,” although the practice is commonly referred to as currency substitution. The right of a trader in many countries to refuse to do business with a person means that a potential buyer cannot force a purchase solely by presenting legal tender, as legal tender should only be accepted for debts already incurred. I cannot reconcile the idea of a tender Heavenly Father with the familiar horrors of war, slavery, plague, and madness. Demonetization is currently prohibited in the United States and the Coinage Act of 1965 applies to all U.S. coins and currencies, regardless of age. The closest historical equivalent in the United States, outside of Confederate silver, was from 1933 to 1974, when the government banned most private property of gold bullion, including gold coins held for non-numismatic purposes. Now, however, even surviving gold coins from before 1933 are legal tender under the 1964 law.
In 1933, the Coinage Act allowed certain New Zealand coins and abolished the legal tender status of British coins. In the same year, the Reserve Bank of New Zealand was established. The bank has been given a monopoly on the issuance of legal tender. The Reserve Bank has also provided a mechanism for other legal tender issuers to phase out their banknotes. These notes were to be converted into British legal tender upon application to the Reserve Bank and remained so until the notice of suspension of the Sterling Exchange of 1938, which repealed the provisions of an amendment to the Reserve Bank of New Zealand Act 1936. Under U.S. federal law, U.S. dollar cash is a valid and legal offer to pay prior debts when offered to a creditor.
In contrast, federal law does not require a vendor to accept federal currency or coins as payment for goods or services exchanged at the same time. Therefore, private companies can formulate their own policies on whether or not to accept cash, unless state law provides otherwise.   Banknotes are not legal tender in Scotland.  Scottish banknotes are legal tender but are not legal tender anywhere in the United Kingdom.  Council Regulation (EC) No 974/98 limits the number of coins that may be offered for payment to fifty.  The governments issuing the coins must establish the euro as the sole legal tender. Due to the different legal meanings of the term `legal tender` in different Member States and the possibility for contract law to prevail over legal tender, it is possible for traders to refuse to accept euro banknotes and coins in certain euro area countries (the Netherlands, Germany, Finland and Ireland).  National legislation may also impose restrictions on the maximum amounts that can be paid per coin or banknote. According to monetary law, there are limits to the value of a transaction for which only coins are used.  A payment in coins is legal tender for up to the following amounts for the following coin denominations: The term “tender tender” comes from the Middle French tendre (verbal form), which means “to offer”.
The Latin root is tender (stretching), and the meaning of tender as an offer is related to the etymology of the English word “extend” (hold outwards).  U.S. coins and currencies (including Federal Reserve notes and circulation notes from Federal Reserve banks and national banks) are legal tender for all debts, public duties, taxes, and duties. Foreign gold or silver coins are not legal tender for debts. Sometimes countries accept the legal tender of another country if they are close to the border or have close trade relations. Shops and restaurants near the Canada-U.S. border accept U.S. and Canadian dollars to make it easier for tourists. Some countries around the world actually took the U.S.
dollar as their own legal tender rather than their currency because they felt the dollar was more stable in value. This practice is called dollarization or currency substitution.